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Mobile Microrobotics

Progress in micro- and nano-scale science and technology has created a demand for new microsystems for high-impact applications in healthcare, biotechnology, manufacturing, and mobile sensor networks. The new robotics field of microrobotics has emerged to extend our interactions and explorations to sub-millimeter scales. This is the first textbook on micron-scale mobile robotics, introducing the fundamentals of design, analysis, fabrication, and control, and drawing on case studies of existing approaches. The book covers the scaling laws that can be used to determine the dominant forces and effects at the micron scale; models forces acting on microrobots, including surface forces, friction, and viscous drag; and describes such possible microfabrication techniques as photo-lithography, bulk micromachining, and deep reactive ion etching. It presents on-board and remote sensing methods, noting that remote sensors are currently more feasible; studies possible on-board microactuators; discusses self-propulsion methods that use self-generated local gradients and fields or biological cells in liquid environments; and describes remote microrobot actuation methods for use in limited spaces such as inside the human body. It covers possible on-board powering methods, indispensable in future medical and other applications; locomotion methods for robots on surfaces, in liquids, in air, and on fluid-air interfaces; and the challenges of microrobot localization and control, in particular multi-robot control methods for magnetic microrobots. Finally, the book addresses current and future applications, including noninvasive medical diagnosis and treatment, environmental remediation, and scientific tools.

(MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, ISBN: 9780262036436, June 2017.)

Bioinspired Composite Microfibers for Skin Adhesion and Signal Amplification of Wearable Sensors

A facile approach is proposed for superior conformation and adhesion of wearable sensors to dry and wet skin. Bioinspired skin-adhesive films are composed of elastomeric microfibers decorated with conformal and mushroom-shaped vinylsiloxane tips. Strong skin adhesion is achieved by crosslinking the viscous vinylsiloxane tips directly on the skin surface. Furthermore, composite microfibrillar adhesive films possess a high adhesion strength of 18 kPa due to the excellent shape adaptation of the vinylsiloxane tips to the multiscale roughness of the skin. As a utility of the skin-adhesive films in wearable-device applications, they are integrated with wearable strain sensors for respiratory and heart-rate monitoring. The signal-to-noise ratio of the strain sensor is significantly improved to 59.7 because of the considerable signal amplification of microfibrillar skin-adhesive films.

(Advanced Materials 19 May 2017 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201701353)

Controllable load sharing for soft adhesive interfaces on three-dimensional surfaces

For adhering to three-dimensional (3D) surfaces or objects, current adhesion systems are limited by a fundamental trade-off between 3D surface conformability and high adhesion strength. This limitation arises from the need for a soft, mechanically compliant interface, which enables conformability to nonflat and irregularly shaped surfaces but significantly reduces the interfacial fracture strength. In this work, we overcome this trade-off with an adhesion-based soft-gripping system that exhibits enhanced fracture strength without sacrificing conformability to nonplanar 3D surfaces. Composed of a gecko-inspired elastomeric microfibrillar adhesive membrane supported by a pressure-controlled deformable gripper body, the proposed soft-gripping system controls the bonding strength by changing its internal pressure and exploiting the mechanics of interfacial equal load sharing. The soft adhesion system can use up to ∼26% of the maximum adhesion of the fibrillar membrane, which is 14× higher than the adhering membrane without load sharing. Our proposed load-sharing method suggests a paradigm for soft adhesion-based gripping and transfer-printing systems that achieves area scaling similar to that of a natural gecko footpad.

(PNAS, vol. 114 no. 22, April 13, 2017 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620344114)

Citation Index (Google Scholar)

Publications

2017

 

Multi-fractal characterization of bacterial swimming dynamics: a case study on real and simulated Serratia marcescens

H Koorehdavoudi, P Bogdan, G Wei, R Marculescu, J Zhuang, ...

Proc. R. Soc. A 473 (2203), 20170154

Mobile Microrobotics  (Book)

M. Sitti

MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, ISBN: 9780262036436, June 2017.

Soiled adhesive pads shear clean by slipping: a robust self-cleaning mechanism in climbing beetles

Guillermo J Amador, Thomas Endlein, Metin Sitti

Advanced MaterialsJournal of The Royal Society Interface

Bioinspired Composite Microfibers for Skin Adhesion and Signal Amplification of Wearable Sensors

DM Drotlef, M Amjadi, M Yunusa, M Sitti

Advanced Materials

 

A fully dense and globally consistent 3D map reconstruction approach for GI tract to enhance therapeutic relevance of the endoscopic capsule robot

M Turan, YY Pilavci, R Jamiruddin, H Araujo, E Konukoglu, M Sitti

arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.06524

 

Six Degree-of-Freedom Localization of Endoscopic Capsule Robots using Recurrent Neural Networks embedded into a Convolutional Neural Network

M Turan, A Abdullah, R Jamiruddin, H Araujo, E Konukoglu, M Sitti

arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.06196

 

Controllable load sharing for soft adhesive interfaces on three-dimensional surfaces

S Song, DM Drotlef, C Majidi, M Sitti

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201620344

A Deep Learning Based 6 Degree-of-Freedom Localization Method for Endoscopic Capsule Robots

M Turan, Y Almalioglu, E Konukoglu, M Sitti

arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.05435

A Non-Rigid Map Fusion-Based RGB-Depth SLAM Method for Endoscopic Capsule Robots

M Turan, Y Almalioglu, H Araujo, E Konukoglu, M Sitti

arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.05444

Recent Advances in Skin Penetration Enhancers for Transdermal Gene and Drug Delivery

M Amjadia, B Mostaghacia, M Sittia

Current Gene Therapy 17, 000-000

Gene delivery particle engineering strategies for shape-dependent targeting of cells and tissues.

KL Kozielski, M Sitti

Current gene therapy

Dynamic and programmable self-assembly of micro-rafts at the air-water interface

W Wang, J Giltinan, S Zakharchenko, M Sitti

Science Advances 3 (5), e1602522

Biohybrid microtube swimmers driven by single captured bacteria

MM Stanton, BW Park, A Miguel‐López, X Ma, M Sitti, S Sánchez

small 13 (19)

Hydrophobic pinning with copper nanowhiskers leads to bactericidal properties

AV Singh, S Baylan, BW Park, G Richter, M Sitti

PloS one 12 (4), e0175428

Rubbing Against Blood Clots Using Helical Robots: Modeling and In Vitro Experimental Validation

ISM Khalil, AF Tabak, K Sadek, D Mahdy, N Hamdi, M Sitti

IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 2 (2), 927-934

Tail-Assisted Mobility and Stability Enhancement in Yaw/Pitch Motions of a Water-Running Robot

HG Kim, M Sitti, TW Seo

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics

The use of clamping grips and friction pads by tree frogs for climbing curved surfaces

T Endlein, A Ji, S Yuan, I Hill, H Wang, WJP Barnes, Z Dai, M Sitti

Proc. R. Soc. B 284 (1849), 20162867

Method of molding simple or complex micro and/or nanopatterned features on both planar or non-planar molded objects and surfaces and the molded objects produced using same

M Sitti, PS Glass, B Aksak, , B Aksak

US Patent 9,566,722

Propulsion and Chemotaxis in Bacteria‐Driven Microswimmers

J Zhuang, BW Park, M Sitti

Advanced Science

Bioadhesive Bacterial Microswimmers for Targeted Drug Delivery in the Urinary and Gastrointestinal Tracts

B Mostaghaci, O Yasa, J Zhuang, M Sitti

Advanced Science

Mobile microrobots for bioengineering applications

H Ceylan, J Giltinan, K Kozielski, M Sitti

Lab on a Chip 17 (10), 1705-1724

2016

 

Soft Actuators for Small‐Scale Robotics

L Hines, K Petersen, GZ Lum, M Sitti

Advanced Materials

 

3D Chemical Patterning of Micromaterials for Encoded Functionality

H Ceylan, IC Yasa, M Sitti

Advanced Materials

 

Composition‐dependent underwater adhesion of catechol‐bearing hydrogels

H Wu, V Sariola, J Zhao, H Ding, M Sitti, CJ Bettinger

Polymer International 65 (11), 1355-1359

High-Performance Multiresponsive Paper Actuators

Morteza Amjadi, Metin Sitti

ACS Nano

Shape-programmable magnetic soft matter

GZ Lum, Z Ye, X Dong, H Marvi, O Erin, W Hu, M Sitti

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201608193

Bioengineered and biohybrid bacteria-based systems for drug delivery

Z Hosseinidoust, B Mostaghaci, O Yasa, BW Park, AV Singh, M Sitti

Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews

 

Bacteria‐Driven Particles: Patterned and Specific Attachment of Bacteria on Biohybrid Bacteria‐Driven Microswimmers (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 18/2016)

AV Singh, M Sitti

Advanced Healthcare Materials 5 (18), 2306-2306

 

Magnetic propulsion of robotic sperms at low-Reynolds number

ISM Khalil, AF Tabak, A Klingner, M Sitti

Applied Physics Letters 109 (3), 033701

 

Analysis of the magnetic torque on a tilted permanent magnet for drug delivery in capsule robots

F Munoz, G Alici, H Zhou, W Li, M Sitti

Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), 2016 IEEE International Conference ...

 

Gallium Adhesion: Phase Change of Gallium Enables Highly Reversible and Switchable Adhesion (Adv. Mater. 25/2016)

Z Ye, GZ Lum, S Song, S Rich, M Sitti

Advanced Materials 28 (25), 5087-5087

 

Methods of forming dry adhesive structures

M Sitti, M Murphy, B Aksak

US Patent App. 15/153,165

Patterned and Specific Attachment of Bacteria on Biohybrid Bacteria‐Driven Microswimmers

AV Singh, M Sitti

Advanced healthcare materials

 

Phase Change of Gallium Enables Highly Reversible and Switchable Adhesion

Z Ye, GZ Lum, S Song, S Rich, M Sitti

Advanced Materials

Size Optimization of a Magnetic System for Drug Delivery With Capsule Robots

F Munoz, G Alici, W Li, M Sitti

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 52 (5), 1-11

 

Inflated Soft Actuators with Reversible Stable Deformations

L Hines, K Petersen, M Sitti

Advanced Materials

 

Targeted drug delivery and imaging using mobile milli/microrobots: A promising future towards theranostic pharmaceutical design

Ajay Vikram Singh, Metin Sitti

Current pharmaceutical design

 

Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors

M Amjadi, M Turan, CP Clementson, M Sitti

ACS applied materials & interfaces 8 (8), 5618-5626

 

Stretchable, Skin‐Mountable, and Wearable Strain Sensors and Their Potential Applications: A Review

M Amjadi, KU Kyung, I Park, M Sitti

Advanced Functional Materials

 

Programmable assembly of heterogeneous microparts by an untethered mobile capillary microgripper

J Giltinan, E Diller, M Sitti

Lab on a Chip 16 (22), 4445-4457

 

Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

J Zhuang, M Sitti

Scientific reports 6

 

The effect of temperature and humidity on adhesion of a gecko-inspired adhesive: implications for the natural system

AY Stark, MR Klittich, M Sitti, PH Niewiarowski, A Dhinojwala

Scientific Reports 6

 

Six-degree-of-freedom magnetic actuation for wireless microrobotics

E Diller, J Giltinan, GZ Lum, Z Ye, M Sitti

The International Journal of Robotics Research 35 (1-3), 114-128

2015

 

Targeted drug delivery and imaging using mobile milli/microrobots: A promising future towards theranostic pharmaceutical design.

AV Singh, M Sitti

Current pharmaceutical design (In Press)

 

Compliant wing design for a flapping wing micro air vehicle

D Colmenares, R Kania, W Zhang, M Sitti

Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2015 IEEE/RSJ International ...

 

Segmented molecular design of self-healing proteinaceous materials

V Sariola, A Pena-Francesch, H Jung, M Çetinkaya, C Pacheco, M Sitti, ...

Scientific Reports 5

 

Experimental Investigation of Optimal Adhesion of Mushroom-Like Elastomer Microfibrillar Adhesives

H Marvi, S Song, M Sitti

Langmuir

 

Untethered Magnetic Micromanipulation

E Diller, M Sitti

Micro-and Nanomanipulation Tools

 

The Fluid Joint: The Soft Spot of Micro- and Nanosystems

Massimo Mastrangeli

Advanced Materials

 

Mesoscopic self-assembly: a shift to complexity

Massimo Mastrangeli

Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering

 

Controlled surface topography regulates collective 3D migration by epithelial–mesenchymal composite embryonic tissues

J Song, JH Shawky, YT Kim, M Hazar, PR LeDuc, M Sitti, LA Davidson

Biomaterials 58, 1-9

 

pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

J Zhuang, RW Carlsen, M Sitti

Scientific reports 5

 

DRY ADHESIVES AND METHODS FOR MAKING DRY ADHESIVES

M Sitti, M Murphy, B Aksak

US Patent 20,150,158,206

 

Six-degree-of-freedom magnetic actuation for wireless microrobotics

E Diller, J Giltinan, GZ Lum, Z Ye, M Sitti

The International Journal of Robotics Research, 0278364915583539

 

Transfer Printing of Metallic Microstructures on Adhesion‐Promoting Hydrogel Substrates

H Wu, V Sariola, C Zhu, J Zhao, M Sitti, CJ Bettinger

Advanced Materials

 

Structural Optimization for Flexure-based Parallel Mechanisms-Towards Achieving Optimal Dynamic and Stiffness Properties

GZ Lum, TJ Teo, SH Yeo, G Yang, M Sitti

Precision Engineering

 

Actively controlled fibrillar friction surfaces

H. Marvi, Y. Han, and M. Sitti

 Applied Physics Letters 106, 051602 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4907255

 

Biomedical Applications of Untethered Mobile Milli/Micro-robots

M. Sitti, H. Ceylan, W. Hu, J. Giltinan, M. Turan, S. Yim, and E. Diller

Proceedings of the IEEE, in press.

 

 

Integrating mechanism synthesis and topological optimization technique for stiffness-oriented design of a three degrees-of-freedom flexure-based parallel mechanism

GZ Lum, TJ Teo, G Yang, SH Yeo, M Sitti

Precision Engineering 39, 125-133

 

 

Collective 3D Migration of Embryonic Epithelial Mesenchymal Composite Tissues are Regulated by Surface Topology

J Song, J Shawky, YT Kim, M Hazar, M Sitti, PR LeDuc, LA Davidson

Biophysical Journal 108 (2), 455a

 

 

Three-dimensional heterogeneous assembly of coded microgels using an untethered mobile micro-gripper

S. E. Chung, X. Dong, and M. Sitti

Lab on a Chip, in press.

 

 

Platform Design and Tethered Flight of a Motor-driven Flapping-wing System

L. Hines, D. Colmenares, M. Sitti

Conference on Robotics and Automation 2015, accepted.

 

 

2014

 

METHODS, APPARATUSES, AND SYSTEMS FOR MICROMANIPULATION WITH ADHESIVE FIBRILLAR STRUCTURES

Metin Sitti, Yigit Mengüç

US Patent 20,140,369,802, 2014

 

 

Series of Multilinked Caterpillar Track‐type Climbing Robots

G Lee, H Kim, K Seo, J Kim, M Sitti, TW Seo

Journal of Field Robotics

 

 

Bio‐Hybrid Cell‐Based Actuators for Microsystems

RW Carlsen, M Sitti

Small 10 (19), 3831–3851

 

 

Mechanics of Load-Drag-Unload based Contact Cleaning of Gecko-inspired Fibrillar Adhesives

U Abusomwan, M Sitti

Langmuir

 

 

MultiMo-Bat: A biologically inspired integrated jumping–gliding robot

MA Woodward, M Sitti

The International Journal of Robotics Research 33 (12), 1511-1529

 

 

GeckoGripper: A soft, inflatable robotic gripper using gecko-inspired elastomer micro-fiber adhesives

S Song, C Majidi, M Sitti

Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2014), 2014 IEEE/RSJ International Conference

 

 

Integrating mechanism synthesis and topological optimization technique for stiffness-oriented design of a three degrees-of-freedom flexure-based parallel mechanism

GZ Lum, TJ Teo, G Yang, SH Yeo, M Sitti

Precision Engineering

 

 

Versatile non-contact micro-manipulation method using rotational flows locally induced by magnetic microrobots

Z Ye, C Edington, AJ Russell, M Sitti

Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), 2014 IEEE/ASME International Conference

 

 

Robotics: Three‐Dimensional Programmable Assembly by Untethered Magnetic Robotic Micro‐Grippers

E Diller, M Sitti

Advanced Functional Materials 24 (28), 4377-4377

 

 

Influence of Magnetic Fields on Magneto-Aerotaxis

M Bennet, A McCarthy, D Fix, MR Edwards, F Repp, P Vach, JWC Dunlop, Metin Sitti, Gerald S Buller, Stefan Klumpp, Damien Faivre

PLoS One 9 (7), e101150

 

 

Soft Grippers Using Micro‐Fibrillar Adhesives for Transfer Printing

S Song, M Sitti

Advanced Materials 26 (28), 4901-4906

 

 

Three‐Dimensional Programmable Assembly by Untethered Magnetic Robotic Micro‐Grippers

E Diller, M Sitti

Advanced Functional Materials 24, 4397–4404

 

 

Mechanically Switchable Elastomeric Microfibrillar Adhesive Surfaces for Transfer Printing

V Sariola, M Sitti

Advanced Materials Interfaces 1 (4), 1300159

 

 

Swimming characterization of Serratia marcescens for bio-hybrid micro-robotics

MR Edwards, RW Carlsen, J Zhuang, M Sitti

Journal of Micro-Bio Robotics 9 (3), 47-60

 

 

STRIDE II: A Water Strider-inspired Miniature Robot with Circular Footpads

O Ozcan, H Wang, JD Taylor, M Sitti

Int J Adv Robot Syst 11, 85

 

 

Robotic assembly of hydrogels for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine

S Tasoglu, E Diller, S Guven, M Sitti, U Demirci

JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE 8, 181-182

 

 

Bio‐Hybrid Cell‐Based Actuators for Microsystems

RW Carlsen, M Sitti

Small

 

 

Dynamic Trapping and Two-Dimensional Transport of Swimming Microorganisms Using a Rotating Magnetic Micro-Robot

Z Ye, M Sitti

Lab on a Chip 14 (13), 2177-2182

 

 

Three-dimensional robotic manipulation and transport of micro-scale objects by a magnetically driven capillary micro-gripper

J Giltinan, E Diller, C Mayda, M Sitti

Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, 2077-2082

 

 

Structural optimization method towards synthesis of small scale flexure-based mobile grippers

GZ Lum, E Diller, M Sitti

Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2014 IEEE International Conference on, 2339-2344

 

 

SoftCubes: Stretchable and self-assembling three-dimensional soft modular matter

S Yim, M Sitti

The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 33 no. 8, 2014, pp. 1083-1097.

 

 

The optimal shape of elastomer mushroom-like fibers for high and robust adhesion

B Aksak, K Sahin, M Sitti

Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology 5 (1), 630-638

 

 

Analytical modeling and experimental characterization of chemotaxis in Serratia marcescens

J Zhuang, G Wei, RW Carlsen, MR Edwards, R Marculescu, P Bogdan, Metin Sitti

Physical Review E 89 (5), 052704

 

 

Staying sticky: contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired adhesives

Y Mengüç, M Röhrig, U Abusomwan, H Hölscher, M Sitti

Journal of The Royal Society Interface 11 (94), 20131205

 

 

Investigation of tip current and normal force measured simultaneously during local oxidation of titanium using dual-mode scanning probe microscopy

O Ozcan, W Hu, M Sitti, J Bain, DS Ricketts

Micro & Nano Letters, IET 9 (5), 332-336

 

 

Continuously distributed magnetization profile for millimeter-scale elastomeric undulatory swimming

E Diller, J Zhuang, GZ Lum, MR Edwards, M Sitti

Applied Physics Letters 104 (17), 174101

 

 

Untethered micro-robotic coding of three-dimensional material composition

S Tasoglu, E Diller, S Guven, M Sitti, U Demirci

Nature Communications 5, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4124

 

 

Magnetic steering control of multi-cellular bio-hybrid microswimmers

RW Carlsen, MR Edwards, J Zhuang, C Pacoret, M Sitti

Lab on a Chip 14 (19), 3850-3859

 

 

Addressing of Micro-robot Teams and Non-contact Micro-manipulation

E Diller, Z Ye, J Giltinan, M Sitti

Small-Scale Robotics. From Nano-to-Millimeter-Sized Robotic Systems and Applications

 

 

Biopsy using a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope Carrying, Releasing and Retrieving Untethered Micro-Grippers

S Yim, E Gultepe, DH Gracias, M Sitti

IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering 61 (2), 513-521

 

 

Rotating Magnetic Miniature Swimming Robots With Multiple Flexible Flagella

Z Ye, S Régnier, M Sitti

IEEE Trans. on Robotics 30 (1), 3-13

 

 

Can DC motors directly drive flapping wings at high frequency and large wing strokes?

D Campolo, M Azhar, G Lau, M Sitti

IEEE/ASME Trans. on Mechatronics 19 (1), 109-120

 

Liftoff of a Motor-Driven, Flapping-Wing Microaerial Vehicle Capable of Resonance

L Hines, D Campolo, M Sitti

IEEE Trans. on Robotics 30 (1), 220-232

 

 

Previous Publications